Uncertainty is intrinsic in Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) owning to novel interactions among software, embedded systems, networking equipment, cloud infrastructures, and agents (e.g., humans). Such systems have become predominantly visible in critical industrial domains (e.g., healthcare and transportation) and oblige the implementation of proper mechanisms to deal with uncertainty during their real operation. One way to ensure the correct implementation of such mechanisms is with automated testing. The U-Test project aims at ensuring that CPS are tested adequately under uncertainty using systematic and automated techniques such as model and search-based testing to facilitate their reliable operation.

The project is funded by Horizon 2020’s Leadership in Enabling and Industrial Technologies (LEIT) program in ICT. The project was started on January 1, 2015 and will conclude on December 31, 2017.

Overall Aim and Concept

The ideas for U-Test emerged as the result of work done in Certus – specifically from Project 8 “Testing of Real- Time and Embedded Systems”. Thus, U-Test shares the overall scientific goal with Certus, but targets new testing challenges faced by our use case providers. The overall goal of U-Test is to improve dependability of CPSs by defining extensible MBT frameworks supporting holistic testing of the systems under uncertainty in a cost-effective manner by:

  1. providing a comprehensive and extensible taxonomy of uncertainties, classifying uncertainties, their properties, and their relationships.
  2. creating an Uncertainty Modeling Framework (UMF) to support modeling uncertainties at various levels (relying on exsiting modeling/testing standards).
  3. developing the Uncertainty Testing Framework (UTF) that can smartly discover unknown uncertainties and generate cost-effective test cases to test CPSs under known and unknown uncertainties.


U-Test will be an international undertaking, with a consortium encompassing domain experts from various facets of CPSs use: software, embedded systems, distributed systems, and cloud infrastructure. Two CPS developers with interesting case studies have been chosen to assess the cost-effectiveness of U-Test: handling systems (ULMA handling systems, Spain); and geo sports (Future Position X, Sweden). The solutions will be integrated into two key commercial tools available on the market: ModelBus/Fokus!MBT (Fraunhofer FOKUS, Germany) and Certifylt (EasyGlobalMarkets, France). The CPS test bed will be provided by Nordic Medtest, Sweden. Solutions will also be deployed within logistics, geo sports, and healthcare domains to achieve a wider impact, and facilitate interoperability among tools and technologies. Commercialization aspects of the project will be investigated by Ikerlan (Spain). Overall administration will be managed by Oslo Medtech.

Having sprung from research undertaken in the Certus project, U-Test will be a collaborative effort not only between industry and academia, but between nations.